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Grammar-Adjective: Apa Itu Adjective?

Kata Sifat

Adjective atau adjektiva merupakan kata yang menerangkan nomina (nouns) maupun pronomina (pronouns), atau mungkin lebih akrab disebut sebagai kata sifat.

Adjective juga berfungsi untuk memodifikasi, memberi sedikit perubahan, mengukur atau menguantifikasi, hingga memberi informasi lebih mengenai suatu nomina/pronomina.

Adjective yang biasanya familier atau kerap kita temui dalam bacaan dan percakapan sehari-hari dapat digolongkan menjadi beberapa kategori, seperti:

Age Old, young, modern, ancient, recent, antique, historical, etc.
Brightness Dark, bright, pale, light, shining, glowing, drab, etc.
Color Red, blue, white, orange, green, black, pastel, silver, etc.
Distance Far, close, near, nearby, distant, remote, etc.
Emotion Happy, sad, confuse, funny, lonely, excited, scared, etc.
Material Cotton, plastic, glass, cloth, leather, silicon, etc.
Nationality Indonesian, Chinese, American, Japanese, Canadian, etc.
Opinion Good, bad, worst, comfortable, unusual, amazing, lovely, etc.
Religion Moslem, Christian, Buddhist, atheist, etc.
Shape Flat, oval, square, round, straight, triangular, elliptical, etc.
Size Heavy, big, small, little, tall, huge, long, lean, scrawny, etc.
Sound Quiet, noisy, loud, silent, mute, silent, etc.
Speed Fast, slow, rapid, brief, hasty, quick, swift, etc.
Taste Sour, salty, spicy, bitter, delicious, sweet, etc.
Time First, last, early, late, belated, morning, evening, night, etc.
Touch Soft, smooth, rough, silky, scratchy, coarse, etc.

Urutan Adjective

Pada dasarnya adjective selalu terletak sebelum nomina yang berusaha dijelaskan. Adjective pun tidak dapat diletakkan secara sembarangan dalam suatu kalimat. Bila ada lebih dari dua adjectives yang mencoba menerangkan nomina, maka ada urutan tertentu yang harus dipenuhi dalam penulisannya, yaitu:

Determiner/article > Quantity > Opinion > Size > Age > Shape > Color > Origin > Material > Purpose > Noun as adjective + Noun described

Contoh:

  • Rough childhood

Rough + childhood = Adjektiva (touch) + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Comfortable white pajamas

Comfortable > white + pajamas = Opini > warna + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Beautiful long straight black hair

Beautiful > long > straight > black + hair = Opini > ukuran > bentuk > warna + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Big antique oval wooden desk

Big > antique > oval > wooden + desk = Ukuran > usia > bentuk > material + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Two tiny blueberry cupcakes

Two > tiny > blueberry + cupcakes = Kuantitas > ukuran > rasa + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

Catatan: Adjective tidak memiliki bentuk jamak dan dapat diletakkan langsung setelah verba be. Contoh:

  • Three beautiful daughters (BENAR)
  • Three beautifuls daughters (SALAH)
  • Her shoes are black (Adjective terletak setelah be)

Contoh Soal

Sekarang cobalah untuk mengidentifikasi mana yang merupakan adjective dalam kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini.

  1. My classroom is near the dark empty janitor closet by the end of the hallway.
  2. I don’t think I said any funny jokes last night.
  3. It’s a complicated and urgent situation.
  4. The children are now so tall, they outrun me on the jogging track.
  5. We have to be quiet in a hospital.
  6. Giraffes have long necks.
  7. That scrawny boy likes to wear oversized t-shirts.
  8. I met Ed Sheeran once. As a famous person, he’s very humble and kind.
  9. When dad met mom for the first time, he said, “I couldn’t get her long blonde hair and eyes of blue off of my mind,”
  10. We baked mom some cute tiny chocolate muffins for her birthday.
  11. Danny has a few expensive and well-made black tailored suits.
  12. Grandma collects many magnificent antique clocks.
  13. Don’t go for those cheap plastic plates for your son’s birthday party. They’re hazardous.
  14. The first-time pre-school teacher was battered after dealing with rambunctious kids all day long.
  15. We encountered a big brown honey bear in the forest.
  16. Dark Places and Sharp Objects are Gillian Flynn’s book titles.
  17. The famous painter experimented and painted rather unusual shapes on her newest painting collection.
  18. This complete toolset is pretty helpful for a newbie like me who loves fixing anything by myself.
  19. Mom made a delicious creamy cheesy pasta for dad’s birthday.
  20. The purple orchid plants in our garden affected by horrible pest and now all dead.

Adjective

Artikel Lainnya

Grammar-Adjective: Predicative Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Nominal Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Apa itu Degree of Comparison?
Grammar-Adjective: Attributive Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Apa itu Nominal Adjectives?
Grammar-Adjective: Mengenal Apa itu Predicative Adjectives
Grammar-Adjective: Mengenal Attributive Adjectives
Grammar-Adjective: Apa Itu Adjective?

 

Grammar-Pronoun: Apa itu Demonstrative Pronoun?
Grammar Tenses: Apa itu Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense?
Sentences: Apa itu Imperative Sentence (Kalimat Perintah)?
Grammar-Verb: Apa itu Verbs?
Grammar-Verb: Apa itu Imperative Verb?
Grammar Tenses: Apa itu Present Perfect Tense?
Apa itu Phrasal Verbs?
Grammar-Adverb: Apa itu Place Adverb?
Clauses: Independent Clause dan Dependent Clause
Past Tense: Simple Past vs Past Continuous


 
Apa Itu Collective Noun?
Verb Tenses: Berbeda Waktu, Berbeda Pula Kata Kerjanya
Mengenal Lebih Jauh “Simple Past Tense”
Adverb of Frequency: Always, Usually, Often, Sometimes, Never
Kenali Perbedaan Prepositions & Conjunctions
Mencerna Perbedaan Infinitive dan Gerund
Perbedaan Simple Past & Past Participle
Daftar Phrasal Verbs yang Sering Dipakai
Perbedaan Gerund After Prepositions vs Gerund as Subject vs Gerund as Object
Apa itu Compound Sentence dalam Bahasa Inggris?