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Grammar-Adjective: Apa Itu Adjective?

Kata Sifat

Adjective atau adjektiva merupakan kata yang menerangkan nomina (nouns) maupun pronomina (pronouns), atau mungkin lebih akrab disebut sebagai kata sifat.

Adjective juga berfungsi untuk memodifikasi, memberi sedikit perubahan, mengukur atau menguantifikasi, hingga memberi informasi lebih mengenai suatu nomina/pronomina.

Adjective yang biasanya familier atau kerap kita temui dalam bacaan dan percakapan sehari-hari dapat digolongkan menjadi beberapa kategori, seperti:

Age Old, young, modern, ancient, recent, antique, historical, etc.
Brightness Dark, bright, pale, light, shining, glowing, drab, etc.
Color Red, blue, white, orange, green, black, pastel, silver, etc.
Distance Far, close, near, nearby, distant, remote, etc.
Emotion Happy, sad, confuse, funny, lonely, excited, scared, etc.
Material Cotton, plastic, glass, cloth, leather, silicon, etc.
Nationality Indonesian, Chinese, American, Japanese, Canadian, etc.
Opinion Good, bad, worst, comfortable, unusual, amazing, lovely, etc.
Religion Moslem, Christian, Buddhist, atheist, etc.
Shape Flat, oval, square, round, straight, triangular, elliptical, etc.
Size Heavy, big, small, little, tall, huge, long, lean, scrawny, etc.
Sound Quiet, noisy, loud, silent, mute, silent, etc.
Speed Fast, slow, rapid, brief, hasty, quick, swift, etc.
Taste Sour, salty, spicy, bitter, delicious, sweet, etc.
Time First, last, early, late, belated, morning, evening, night, etc.
Touch Soft, smooth, rough, silky, scratchy, coarse, etc.

Urutan Adjective

Pada dasarnya adjective selalu terletak sebelum nomina yang berusaha dijelaskan. Adjective pun tidak dapat diletakkan secara sembarangan dalam suatu kalimat. Bila ada lebih dari dua adjectives yang mencoba menerangkan nomina, maka ada urutan tertentu yang harus dipenuhi dalam penulisannya, yaitu:

Determiner/article > Quantity > Opinion > Size > Age > Shape > Color > Origin > Material > Purpose > Noun as adjective + Noun described

Contoh:

  • Rough childhood

Rough + childhood = Adjektiva (touch) + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Comfortable white pajamas

Comfortable > white + pajamas = Opini > warna + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Beautiful long straight black hair

Beautiful > long > straight > black + hair = Opini > ukuran > bentuk > warna + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Big antique oval wooden desk

Big > antique > oval > wooden + desk = Ukuran > usia > bentuk > material + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

  • Two tiny blueberry cupcakes

Two > tiny > blueberry + cupcakes = Kuantitas > ukuran > rasa + Nomina yang dijelaskan.

Catatan: Adjective tidak memiliki bentuk jamak dan dapat diletakkan langsung setelah verba be. Contoh:

  • Three beautiful daughters (BENAR)
  • Three beautifuls daughters (SALAH)
  • Her shoes are black (Adjective terletak setelah be)

Contoh Soal

Sekarang cobalah untuk mengidentifikasi mana yang merupakan adjective dalam kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini.

  1. My classroom is near the dark empty janitor closet by the end of the hallway.
  2. I don’t think I said any funny jokes last night.
  3. It’s a complicated and urgent situation.
  4. The children are now so tall, they outrun me on the jogging track.
  5. We have to be quiet in a hospital.
  6. Giraffes have long necks.
  7. That scrawny boy likes to wear oversized t-shirts.
  8. I met Ed Sheeran once. As a famous person, he’s very humble and kind.
  9. When dad met mom for the first time, he said, “I couldn’t get her long blonde hair and eyes of blue off of my mind,”
  10. We baked mom some cute tiny chocolate muffins for her birthday.
  11. Danny has a few expensive and well-made black tailored suits.
  12. Grandma collects many magnificent antique clocks.
  13. Don’t go for those cheap plastic plates for your son’s birthday party. They’re hazardous.
  14. The first-time pre-school teacher was battered after dealing with rambunctious kids all day long.
  15. We encountered a big brown honey bear in the forest.
  16. Dark Places and Sharp Objects are Gillian Flynn’s book titles.
  17. The famous painter experimented and painted rather unusual shapes on her newest painting collection.
  18. This complete toolset is pretty helpful for a newbie like me who loves fixing anything by myself.
  19. Mom made a delicious creamy cheesy pasta for dad’s birthday.
  20. The purple orchid plants in our garden affected by horrible pest and now all dead.

Adjective

Artikel Lainnya

Grammar-Adjective: Predicative Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Nominal Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Degree of Comparison
Grammar-Adjective: Attributive Adjectives – Part 2
Grammar-Adjective: Apa itu Nominal Adjectives?
Grammar-Adjective: Mengenal Apa itu Predicative Adjectives
Grammar-Adjective: Mengenal Attributive Adjectives
Grammar-Adjective: Apa Itu Adjective?

 

Speech: Direct Speech (Kalimat Langsung)
Grammar-Adverb: Superlative Adverb
Apa itu Sentence Modifier?
Sentence: What is Subject?
Grammar-Conjunction: Correlative Conjunction
Grammar-Pronoun: Possessive Pronoun
Grammar-Adverb: Emphasizers Adverb
Aturan Menggabung Kalimat Bahasa Inggris
Grammar-Adverb: Place Adverb
Grammar-Verb: Active Verb


 


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Sentences: Run-On Sentence
Quantifier: Perbedaan Many, Much dan A Lot Of
Clauses: Adjective Clause
Sentence Structure: Complex Sentence
Sentences: Imperative Sentence (Kalimat Perintah)
Phrases: Noun Phrase
Phrases: Verb Phrase
Verb: Present Participle
Verb: Main Verb+Auxiliary Verb
Grammar-Verb: Modal Verb