Online Indonesian - English Dictionary

Grammar-Pronoun: Demonstrative Pronoun vs Indefinite Pronoun

Kata Ganti Penunjuk vs Kata Ganti Tak Tentu

Demonstrative Pronoun

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN adalah kata ganti yang digunakan untuk menunjuk seseorang atau suatu benda maupun hal. Demonstrative pronouns antara lain: this, that, these, those, such, neither, dan none. Misalnya:

  • This is my new watch.
  • That is the price you should be willing to pay for your impatience.
  • These are the list of ingredients that I should buy at the grocery store.
  • Those are my pants and shirt she’s wearing to the party.
  • I never meant to hurt you, such never even passed on my mind.
  • Neither would ever suffice.
  • He invited none.

Jenis demonstrative pronouns sama dengan demonstrative adjectives (this, that, these, those). Namun, demonstrative pronouns tidak diikuti oleh noun seperti halnya demonstrative adjectives. Demonstrative pronouns justru menggantikan posisi frasa nomina yang dibentuk oleh demonstrative adjectives tersebut. Perhatikan contoh dalam tabel berikut ini.

Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative Pronouns
This book is my friend’s This is my friend’s
Those houses are enormous. Those are enormous.
These empty cans of hairspray are dangerous. These are dangerous.
That girl is my neighbor’s daughter That is my neighbor’s daughter.
Is this last piece of pizza yours or mine? Is this yours or mine?
Did you hand that last chapter of your book to your editor? Did you hand that to your editor?

Biasanya, seseorang perlu menunjuk secara langsung apa yang ia maksud agar orang lain dapat memahami maksud kata ganti tersebut, yang mendengarkan pun harus melihat apa yang ditunjuk. Sehingga demonstrative pronouns kebanyakan hanya digunakan saat berbicara.

Namun, bukan berarti demonstrative pronouns tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk tulisan. Bila konteksnya dapat menjelaskan nomina apa yang digantikan atau dirujuk oleh demonstrative pronouns, pastilah pembaca juga akan dapat memahami apa yang dimaksudkan oleh penulis.

Indefinite Pronoun

INDEFINITE PRONOUN adalah kata ganti yang tidak mendefinisikan sesuatu atau tidak merujuk pada nomina secara spesifik. Bisa jadi berbentuk tunggal maupun jamak. Namun, kata kerja yang mengikut harus sesuai dengan angkanya.

Indefinite pronouns dapat dibagi menjadi tiga kategori berdasarkan jumlahnya, apakah tunggal, jamak, ataukah dapat digunakan sebagai keduanya.

Selalu tunggal (singular): anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, either, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, something.

  • Something doesn’t feel right.
  • I can feel that something just isn’t right.
  • Each one of us knows our grandparents’ full names.
  • Everybody thinks I’m an idiot for loving her.
  • None of us can finish the project in time.
  • Does anybody here have something to ask before we finish the class?
  • Neither one of us wants to get married in near time.
  • Nothing is going change my love for you.

Selalu jamak (plural): both, few, many, other, several.

  • He has been accused of doing sexual harassment by several women.
  • Only a few people attended the seminar today.
  • How many kilometers did we walk this morning?
  • With my fifteen-year experience, I can get other jobs I want at the new town.
  • Both of us believe that she never abuses her children.

Dapat tunggal maupun jamak: all, any, more, most, some.

  • My brother needs to borrow some money to fix his motorcycle.
  • Some children are riding bicycle near the park.
  • At this point, any box will do just fine to pack all of my stuff.
  • Is there more question?
  • Most people get out of the movie theater when the ending credit rolls on screen.
  • There have got to be more silver linings we can take from this situation.
  • All students bring their own laptops to class.
  • I haven’t got any letters yet from the universities I applied to last month.

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Grammar-Pronoun: Demonstrative Pronoun vs Indefinite Pronoun